Paris, "the city of light" is a thriving metropolis and has been a center of intellectual and artistic achievements for centuries. The roots of the city date back to the third century BC and cultural influences as diverse as Celtic, Roman, Scandinavian and English are embedded in the rich heritage of the city. This is a story that is far too long and complex to summarize easily, but here is a brief account of the main events and facts. You will soon understand why Thomas Jefferson said once that “A walk about Paris will provide lessons in history, beauty, and in the point of Life.”
Known as Lutetia in Antiquity, Paris was conquered by Julius Caesar in 52 BC, and existed as a regional center under the Romans in the early Middle Ages. In 987, Hugh Capet, Count of Paris, became King of France and, under his successors, the Capetiens, the position of the city as the capital of the nation was established. Often described as fiery and rebellious, the Parisian people first declared themselves an independent commune under the leadership of Etienne Marcel in 1355-1388. The storming of the Bastille in 1789 is the first of a series of decisive acts conducted by the Parisian people during the French revolution. Paris also played a major role in the revolutions of 1830 and 1848. In 1871, during the Franco-Prussian war, the city was besieged for four months until the capitulation of France. After the withdrawal of the German troops, the French radicals briefly established the Common de Paris. During the First World War, the Germans were prevented from reaching Paris, but they occupied the city during the Second World War from 1940 to 1944. Paris was again the scene of violence during the student riots of 1968.
The historic district along the Seine in the city center is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Popular sights in the city center include the Notre-Dame de Paris cathedral and the Gothic Royal Chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both located on Ile de la Cité; the Eiffel Tower, built for the 1889 Universal Exhibition in Paris; the Grand Palais and the Petit Palais, built for the 1900 Universal Exhibition in Paris; the Arc de Triomphe on the Champs-Élysées and the basilica of the Sacré-Coeur on the hill of Montmartre.
Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, diplomacy, commerce, fashion, science, as well as the arts. Paris is especially known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre is the most visited art museum in the world with more than 10.2 million visitors annually. Its treasures include the Mona Lisa (La Joconde), the Venus de Milo statue, Liberty Leading the People, as well as many other notable works. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, and the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe. The Musée national du Moyen Âge, or Cluny Museum, presents Medieval art, including the famous tapestry cycle of The Lady and the Unicorn. The Guimet Museum, or Musée national des arts asiatiques, has one of the largest collections of Asian art in Europe. There are also notable museums devoted to individual artists, including the Picasso Museum the Rodin Museum, and the Musée national Eugène Delacroix.
Paris hosts one of the largest science museums in Europe, the Cité des Sciences et de l'Industrie at La Villette. The National Museum of Natural History located near the Jardin des plantes attracted 1.76 million visitors in 2016. It is famous for its dinosaur artefacts, mineral collections and its Gallery of Evolution. There are also notable private museums; The Contemporary Art museum of the Louis Vuitton Foundation, designed by architect Frank Gehry, opened in October 2014 in the Bois de Boulogne.
For centuries, Paris has attracted artists from around the world to the city to learn and draw inspiration from its vast reservoir of artistic resources and galleries. As a result, Paris has gained a reputation as a "city of art". Italian artists had a profound influence on the development of art in Paris in the 16th and 17th centuries, particularly in the mediums of sculpture and relief. Painting and sculpture became the pride of the French monarchy and the French royal family commissioned many Parisian artists to decorate their palaces during the Baroque and Classical French. Sculptors such as Girardon, Coysevox and Coustou have earned the reputation of being the best artists of the royal court of the seventeenth century in France.
Paris was at its peak in the 19th century and early 20th century, with a colony of artists established in the city and art schools associated with some of the best painters of the time: Edouard Manet, Claude Monet, Berthe Morisot, Paul Gauguin, Pierre-Auguste Renoir and others. The French Revolution and the political and social changes in France had a profound influence on the art of the capital. Paris played a central role in the development of artistic romanticism, with painters such as Gericault. The Impressionism, Art Nouveau, Symbolism, Fauvism, Cubism and Art Deco movements have all evolved in Paris.
At the end of the 19th century, many artists from the French provinces and around the world flocked to Paris to exhibit their work in many exhibitions and exhibitions and make a name for themselves. Artists such as Pablo Picasso, Henri Matisse, Vincent van Gogh, Paul Cezanne, Jean Metzinger, Albert Gleizes, Henri Rousseau, Marc Chagall, Amedeo Modigliani and many others have joined forces in Paris. Picasso, residing at the Bateau-Lavoir in Montmartre, painted between 1905 and 1907 his famous Families of Saltimbanques and Les Demoiselles d'Avignon. Montmartre and Montparnasse become centers of artistic production.
Also prominent from the Parisian design school are Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi (Statue of Liberty), Auguste Rodin, Camille Claudel, Antoine Bourdelle, Paul Landowski (Christ the Redeemer in Rio de Janeiro) and Aristide Maillol. The golden age of the Paris School ends between the two world wars.
At the end of the 12th century, a school of polyphony was established at Notre-Dame. The Conservatoire de musique de Paris was founded in 1795. In 1870, Paris became an important center of symphonic music, ballet and opera.
Among the composers of the Romantic era are Hector Berlioz, Charles Gounod, Camille Saint-Saens, Leo Delibes and Jules Massenet, among others. Georges Bizet's premiere, Carmen, was premiered on March 3, 1875. Since then, Carmen has become one of the most popular and most popular operas of the classical canon. Impressionist composers who created new works for piano, orchestra, opera, chamber music and other musical forms include Claude Debussy, Erik Satie and Maurice Ravel. Several foreign-born composers, such as Frédéric Chopin (Poland), Franz Liszt (Hungary), Jacques Offenbach (Germany), Niccolò Paganini (Italy) and Igor Stravinsky (Russia) have established themselves or have made significant contributions to the times with their works and their influence in Paris.
Bal-musette is a style of French music and dance that became popular in Paris in the 1870s and 1880s.. Parisian and Italian musicians who played the accordion adopted the style and settled in Auvergnat's bars, especially in the 19th arrondissement. The romantic sounds of the accordion have since become one of the musical symbols of the city. Paris has become a major jazz center and continues to attract jazz musicians from around the world to its clubs and cafes
Paris is the spiritual homeland of gypsy jazz. Django Reinhardt made his name in Paris after settling in a caravan in the 18th arrondissement. He performed with the violinist Stéphane Grappelli and their Quintette of the Hot Club de France in the years 1930-1940.
Immediately after the war, the district of Saint-Germain-des-Prés and the neighboring district of Saint-Michel welcomed many small jazz clubs, mainly installed in cellars for lack of space; These include the Caveau des Lorientais, the Club Saint-Germain, the Red Rose, the Vieux-Colombier and the most famous, Le Tabou. They introduced the Parisians to the music of Claude Luter, Boris Vian, Sydney Bechet, Mezz Mezzrow and Henri Salvador. Most clubs closed in the early 1960s as musical tastes shifted to rock and roll.
Some of the best gypsy musicians in the world here play the city's cafes at night. Some of the most notable jazz venues are New Morning, Sunset, Chope des Puces and Bouquet du Nord. On December 19, 2015, Paris and other fans from around the world commemorated the 100th anniversary of the birth of Edith Piaf, a cabaret singer-songwriter and actress who has become widely regarded as France's national singer and songwriter; one of the biggest international stars of France. Maurice Chevalier, Charles Aznavour, Yves Montand and Charles Trenet are among the singers of the same style.
Paris has been an international capital of haute couture since the 19th century, especially in the field of haute couture, hand-made clothing for private customers. It houses some of the largest fashion houses in the world, including Dior and Chanel, as well as many famous fashion designers, including Karl Lagerfeld, Jean Paul Gaultier, Christophe Josse and Christian Lacroix. Paris Fashion Week, taking place in January and July at the Carrousel du Louvre and in other cities, is one of the four most important events on the international fashion calendar, such as fashion weeks in Milan, London and New York. Paris is also home to the largest cosmetics company in the world, L'Oreal, and three of the top five luxury fashion accessories manufacturers: Louis Vuitton, Hermes and Cartier. Most major fashion designers have their showrooms along the Avenue Montaigne, between the Champs-Elysées and the Seine.
From Uderzo described in "Asterix and Obelix" to Jean Anouilh: "Everything ends like this in France - all marriages, baptisms, duels, burials, scams, diplomatic affairs, everything is a pretext for a good dinner. "
Since the late eighteenth century, Paris has been known for its restaurants and fine cuisine, meticulously prepared and presented with talent. A luxury restaurant, La Taverne Anglaise, opened in 1786 under the arcades of the Palais-Royal by Antoine Beauvilliers; it included an elegant dining room, a full menu, linen tablecloths, a large wine list and well-trained waiters and has become a model for future Parisian restaurants. The famous Parisian restaurants of the 19th century, notably the Café de Paris, the Rocher de Cancale, the Café Anglais, the Maison Dorée and the Café Riche, were for the most part located near the theaters of the Boulevard des Italiens; they have been immortalized in the novels of Balzac and Emile Zola. Many of the best-known Parisian restaurants appeared during the Belle Epoque, including the Rue Royale Maxim, Ledoyen in the gardens of the Champs-Elysees and the Tour d'Argent on the quai de la Tournelle.
Today, because of the cosmopolitan population of Paris, there are all the French regional specialties and almost all the national specialties of the world. the city has over 9,000 restaurants. The Michelin Guide has been a standard guide for French restaurants since 1900 and awards its highest distinction, three stars, to the best restaurants in France. In 2018, out of the 27 Michelin 3 Michelin-starred restaurants in France, 10 are located in Paris. These include both restaurants serving classic French cuisine, such as L'Ambroisie on Place des Vosges, and restaurants offering non-traditional menus, such as L'Astrance, which combines French and Asian cuisines. Many of the most famous French chefs, including Pierre Gagnaire, Alain Ducasse, Yannick Alléno and Alain Passard, have three-star restaurants in Paris.
In addition to classic restaurants, Paris has several other types of traditional eating places. In the 18th century, Parisian cafés were at the center of the city's political and cultural life. In the 20th century, the cafés of the Left Bank, including the Café de la Rotonde, the Dome Café in Montparnasse, the Café de Flore and Les Deux Magots on the Boulevard Saint Germain, still in activity, were important meeting places for painters, writers and painters. philosophers. The bistro is a type of restaurant in the broad sense, defined as a neighborhood restaurant with modest decor and prices, a regular clientele and a friendly atmosphere.
If you are wandering in Paris. Josephine Baker has been saying for more than a century: "I really like the French, because even when they insult you, they do it so nicely" .... Therefore, never trust a Parisian who claims that "impossible is not French", ... of course, the Champs-Élysées is "the most beautiful avenue in the world" ... Macaroons "Ladurée", pastries "chocolate éclairs" "," The music is the best, or even dancing on the skateboard is so "comme ci, comme ça" ... Visit Paris, with us..
Join us at the 30th ECCMID to be able to say the famous line: “We’ll always have Paris.” from the classic movie, Casablanca (1942, that stars Humphrey Bogart and Ingrid Bergman, along with several other brilliant actors).
”Paris is always a good idea.” – Audrey Hepburn