At the end of the 12th century, a school of polyphony was established at Notre-Dame. The Conservatoire de musique de Paris was founded in 1795. In 1870, Paris became an important center of symphonic music, ballet and opera.
Among the composers of the Romantic era are Hector Berlioz, Charles Gounod, Camille Saint-Saens, Leo Delibes and Jules Massenet, among others. Georges Bizet's premiere, Carmen, was premiered on March 3, 1875. Since then, Carmen has become one of the most popular and most popular operas of the classical canon. Impressionist composers who created new works for piano, orchestra, opera, chamber music and other musical forms include Claude Debussy, Erik Satie and Maurice Ravel. Several foreign-born composers, such as Frédéric Chopin (Poland), Franz Liszt (Hungary), Jacques Offenbach (Germany), Niccolò Paganini (Italy) and Igor Stravinsky (Russia) have established themselves or have made significant contributions to the times with their works and their influence in Paris.
Bal-musette is a style of French music and dance that became popular in Paris in the 1870s and 1880s.. Parisian and Italian musicians who played the accordion adopted the style and settled in Auvergnat's bars, especially in the 19th arrondissement. The romantic sounds of the accordion have since become one of the musical symbols of the city. Paris has become a major jazz center and continues to attract jazz musicians from around the world to its clubs and cafes
Paris is the spiritual homeland of gypsy jazz. Django Reinhardt made his name in Paris after settling in a caravan in the 18th arrondissement. He performed with the violinist Stéphane Grappelli and their Quintette of the Hot Club de France in the years 1930-1940.
Immediately after the war, the district of Saint-Germain-des-Prés and the neighboring district of Saint-Michel welcomed many small jazz clubs, mainly installed in cellars for lack of space; These include the Caveau des Lorientais, the Club Saint-Germain, the Red Rose, the Vieux-Colombier and the most famous, Le Tabou. They introduced the Parisians to the music of Claude Luter, Boris Vian, Sydney Bechet, Mezz Mezzrow and Henri Salvador. Most clubs closed in the early 1960s as musical tastes shifted to rock and roll.
Some of the best gypsy musicians in the world here play the city's cafes at night. Some of the most notable jazz venues are New Morning, Sunset, Chope des Puces and Bouquet du Nord. On December 19, 2015, Paris and other fans from around the world commemorated the 100th anniversary of the birth of Edith Piaf, a cabaret singer-songwriter and actress who has become widely regarded as France's national singer and songwriter; one of the biggest international stars of France. Maurice Chevalier, Charles Aznavour, Yves Montand and Charles Trenet are among the singers of the same style.